FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Agri-Pulse:The cost of building some renewable energy generators is down, according to a data analysis released this week by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Among newly constructed utility-scale electric generators in 2016, annual capacity-weighted average construction costs for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and onshore wind turbines fell.New construction for wind and solar power were among the year’s most popular generation additions, with natural gas rounding out the top three. These three technologies accounted for approximately 93 percent of added capacity. Total electric generating capacity increased 50 percent over 2015.Solar PV construction has steadily declined since 2013 when costs were $3,705 per kilowatt (kW) for construction. In 2016, the construction cost was $2,436 per kW as 500 PV generating units added 8 gigawatts (GW) to the energy mix. The EIA could not predict how 2018 tariffs on imported panels might affect future solar PV costs.Wind capacity additions were the most popular in 2016. Utilities added 84 wind turbine projects with a total of 8.8 GW. Construction costs were down slightly from 2015, at $1,630 per kW. The data show capacity-weighted costs were lower for larger wind plants due to shared infrastructure costs.Unlike PV solar and wind generation, construction costs for natural gas generators increased slightly in 2016. In 2016, 100 natural gas-fired generators, totaling 9.8 GW, were added to the electric grid.More: Construction costs decline for wind, solarKallanish Energy:Nearly 500 PV generating units totaling 8,000 megawatts (MW) were added to the electric grid in 2016, making it the second-most common technology installed in 2016, after wind turbines.Utilities added 84 wind turbine projects, totaling 8,800 MW, to the electric grid in 2016. The construction costs for onshore wind generators in 2016 reached $1,630/kW, a slight decrease from 2015.Capacity-weighted costs tend to be lower for larger wind plants. In the past three years, most new wind capacity has been larger plants — 89% of 2016 wind turbine additions were to sites with more than 100 MW. As the capacity added at a site increases, the capacity-weighted construction cost decreases because the siting and infrastructure costs are shared by more turbines and capacity.Wind class — the wind speeds for which a wind turbine is optimized — can also affect wind generator costs; wind turbines designed for high- and medium-speed winds (classes 1 and 2) averaged about $100/kW more than turbines designed for low wind (class 3).In 2016, 100 natural gas-fired generators, totaling 9,800 MW, were added to the electric grid. Costs averaged $895/kW, an increase from $812/kW in 2015. Of the 9,00 MW added, 3,600 MW were combustion turbines.More: Average U.S. construction costs for solar, wind fell in 2016 Latest U.S. Energy Information Agency data: solar and wind costs trend down
Total expenditures on private multi-day trips amounted to HRK 9,3 billion, of which HRK 4,3 billion (46,6%) in Croatia and HRK 5,0 billion (53,4%) abroad. Average expenditures per private multi-day trip amounted to HRK 1, with average expenditures per private trip amounting to HRK 814 in Croatia and HRK 1 abroad. 8,0 million day trips made The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) has published provisional data on tourist activities of the population of the Republic of Croatia in 2019. Data that once again tells us how easily we reject the potential of domestic tourists and consumption. Especially in the current situation. In 2019, 1,9 million people or 54,1% of the Croatian population aged 15 and over were on at least one private multi-day trip. Most nights spent in non-commercial accommodation According to the type of accommodation, most overnight stays were realized in non-commercial accommodation facilities (18,4 million overnight stays or 65,3%), of which 11,1 million overnight stays in accommodation facilities with relatives and friends, and in own houses and holiday apartments (cottages) 6,9 million overnight stays. On private multi-day trips, the population of Croatia aged 15 and over realized a total of 28,2 million overnight stays, of which 19,0 million overnight stays (67,3%) on trips in Croatia, and 9,2 million (32,7%) ) on trips abroad. An average of 5,5 overnight stays were made per trip. On average, 5,8 overnight stays were realized on trips in Croatia, and 5,1 overnight stays were realized on trips abroad. In 2019, 46% of the Croatian population did not travel, mostly for financial reasons The most common reasons for going on a private multi-day trip were a visit to relatives and friends (1,7 million trips or 32,7% of the total private multi-day trips) and a vacation at sea (1,5 million trips or 30,2% of the total realized private multi-day trips). Of course, 4 million Croats (of course the base is much smaller) cannot replace 20 million foreign tourist arrivals, but they certainly can and should be an excellent base for the pre- and post-season, as well as for continental and rural tourism. In 2019, 54% of the Croatian population aged 15 and over went on private multi-day trips In 2019, 320 people or 9,2% of the Croatian population aged 15 and over were on at least one business multi-day trip. A total of 837 thousand business trips were made, of which 409 thousand trips (48,9%) were made in Croatia and 429 thousand (51,1%) abroad. Average expenses per trip amounted to HRK 1 In 2019, 1,6 million or 45,9% of the Croatian population aged 15 and over did not travel on private multi-day trips. The most common reasons for not going on private multi-day trips (possibility of multiple answers) were lack of financial resources (44,1%) and health reasons (32,5%). In 2019, 9,2% of the Croatian population went on business multi-day trips A total of 5,1 million private multi-day trips were made, of which 3,3 million (64,4%) in Croatia and 1,8 million (35,6%) abroad. Most people traveled abroad to Bosnia and Herzegovina (22,4%), Germany (12,6%), Italy (10,2%), Austria (8,7%), Slovenia (8,6%) and Serbia. 8,2%). Also, from the second year, Cro cards will be in full use, so we should definitely focus on the domestic guest. In 15, the population of Croatia aged 2019 and over made 8,0 million one-day trips, of which 7,1 million (89,4%) were private and 845 thousand (10,6%) business. Total expenditures on private one-day trips amounted to HRK 2,7 billion (2,1 billion on trips in Croatia and HRK 637 million on trips abroad).