Related Items: Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp#Jamaica, August 17, 2017 – Kingston – The Climate Change Division (CCD) of the Ministry of Economic Growth and Job Creation will be leading a study tour to the Wigton Windfarm and the Caribbean Coastal Area Management Foundation (C-CAM) on Friday, August 18, in an effort to sensitize environmental stakeholders to the day-to-day operations of the facilities.The tour, which is also aimed at highlighting ways in which the facilities contribute positively to the country’s climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts, will be done by representatives of the Division and the Meteorological Service of Jamaica as well as officers of the Ministry.Senior Technical Officer with responsibility for Mitigation at the CCD, Omar Alcock, said this tour, the first of several to be done throughout the year, is significant, as it fills the gap between the administrative and theoretical aspects of climate change adaptation efforts and the practical side.“So, a part of the tour is to get a visual of exactly what is happening on the ground. I am sure that, through this, persons will now become more familiar with the work taking place. A lot of times we do presentations, go to meetings and do the administrative part of it, but this is to actually get an appreciation of what is happening,” he said in an interview with JIS News.Wigton Windfarm Ltd, the largest wind energy facility in the English-speaking Caribbean, is located in Rose Hill, Manchester, and currently comprises three plants – the 20.7-megawatt Wigton I, which began operating in 2004; Wigton II, an 18-megawatt extension facility that was commissioned in 2010; and Wigton III, the 24-megawatt expansion, commissioned in 2016. C-CAM, located in Salt River, Clarendon, was established in 1997 to promote coastal conservation in Jamaica.The tour will feature a resource centre developed in 2015, which includes a library and teaching area for persons interested in learning about the environment, Jamaica’s endemic species and national adaptation and conservation efforts.Mr. Alcock said budgeting officers from the Ministry’s Finance Department will also be included in the tour to help foster a greater appreciation for the work being done, in order to more adequately treat with certain accounting items relating to the environment.The tour will include presentations and discussions outlining the effectiveness and achievements of the facilities and how they contribute to conservation of the environment. This is a follow-up to a recent workshop by the CCD with budgeting officers of the ministries, departments and agencies aimed at highlighting the importance of including climate change-related matters in their budgets and clearly identifying instances where it is included.Upcoming study tours will include a visit to WRB Energy, a solar farm facility in Content, Clarendon, as well as one of the country’s hydroelectric power plants.
A woman carrying her son arrives to check her name on the draft list of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) at an NRC center in Chandamari village in Goalpara district in the northeastern state of Assam, India, 2 January, 2018. Photo: ReutersIndia said on Monday it had excluded more than 4 million people from a draft list of citizens in the border state of Assam who could not produce valid documents, a move that has sparked fears about the future of thousands in the region.Security has been tightened across the state, which borders Bangladesh, as thousands of Bengali-speaking Muslims worry about being sent to detention centres or deported, a Reuters witness said.The tea-rich state of Assam has long been the centre of social and communal tensions with locals campaigning against illegal immigrants, a fight that Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Hindu nationalist-led government has championed.In 1983, scores of people were chased down and killed by machete-armed mobs intent on hounding out Muslim immigrants.The government said the draft was not meant to drive people out and those struck out of the list would have a chance to re-apply.”Based on this draft, there is no question of anyone being taken to detention centres or foreigners’ tribunal,” Sailesh, India’s census commissioner who uses only one name, told rerporters in Guwahati, the state’s main city.Hundreds of thousands of people fled to India from Bangladesh during Bangladesh’s war of independence from Pakistan in the early 1970s. Most of them settled in Assam, which has a near-270 km (165-mile) border with Bangladesh.More than 30 million people had applied and 4,007,707 had been excluded from the list, Sailesh said.To be recognised as Indian citizens, all residents of Assam had to produce documents proving that they or their families lived in the country before March 24, 1971.Sailesh did not provide a breakup of people who had failed to make to the draft list.Critics see the citizenship test as another measure supported by Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) aimed at minority Muslims. The BJP denies any bias but says it opposes a policy of appeasement of any community.Authorities in the state have previously said the citizenship test was crucial to protect ethnic Assamese, many of whom have demanded removal of outsiders they accuse of taking jobs and cornering resources in the state of 33 million.The first draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC), released on Dec. 31, confirmed the citizenship of 19 million people, leading to jubilation for some and heartbreak among others.The NRC, however, told the Supreme Court this month that 150,000 people from the first list, a third of them married women, would be dropped from the next one, mainly because they provided false information or gave inadmissible documents.”If the government has decided to brand us foreigners what can we do?” said Abdul Suban, 60, a Bengali-speaking Muslim, earlier.”The NRC is trying to finish us off. Our people have died here, but we will not leave this place.”
In the wake of death of Bangladeshis in recent boat capsize in the Mediterranean Sea, the relevant parliamentary standing committee on Wednesday suggested the foreign ministry to take action against those engaged in human trafficking, reports UNB.The parliamentary standing committee on foreign affairs ministry came up with the recommendation at its 4th meeting held at the Jatiya Sangsad with its chairman Muhammad Faruk Khan in the chair, said a handout.At the meeting, the committee expressed deep shock and sorrow at the death of Bangladeshis in the Mediterranean Sea along Tunisia on their way to Europe from Libya.The parliamentary watchdog asked the foreign ministry to identify the syndicates of those engaged in human trafficking and take measures against them.It also recommended the Bangladesh missions concerned to extend their cooperation to the Bangladeshi victims in the boat capsize.A boat carrying 70-80 people capsized in the sea some time on the night of 9 May.The ministry of foreign affairs on Wednesday released the identities of 39 Bangladeshis who went missing after the boat capsized in the Mediterranean Sea while attempting to reach Europe from Libya.Fourteen other Bangladesh nationals were rescued alive from the capsized boat.It also confirmed that 130 of the total 150 migrants on two boats were Bangladeshis. One boat reached safely and another, carrying 70-80 passengers, capsized in the sea.The parliamentary committee also discussed the plan and preparation of the foreign ministry for celebrating the Mujib Year (2020-2021) to mark the birth centenary of the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.Discussing the manpower crisis at Bangladeshi missions in different countries, the committee recommended quick recruitment of manpower and enhancement of ICT use to overcome the problem.The parliamentary body also suggested the ministry for taking measures for the committee’s visit to the training academy of the foreign ministry.Committee members foreign minister AK Abdul Momen, state minister for foreign affairs Md Shahriar Alam, Nurul Islam Nahid, Md Abdul Majid Khan, Nahim Razzaq and Nizam Uddin Jalil (John) attended the meeting.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. “Once the probability 0.6 is fixed in the population, a value of 0.7 is more likely to invade than a decrease to 0.5. So it is true that there is gradual, step-by-step evolutionary process causing the increment in the tendency to go to war, but this might take a long time. Our model is a bit less idealized than this, but it works approximately like that.”However, as you might expect, there is a downside to belligerence and bravery. While both these traits offer advantages during war for a tribe, both traits are also considered high-risk social behaviors. An individual possessing the traits has a greater chance of dying, which means the tribe not only loses a warrior, but the death also opens a spot for another male to appropriate the first male’s reproduction-enhancing resources. This trade-off leads to another question: if an individual himself does not benefit from belligerence and bravery, but only his tribe, why would humans evolve this altruistic trait? The scientists explain that the answer is kinship: a human will take the risk of dying for close relatives since they carry very similar genetic material, and will pass that genetic material on for him. “The mathematical analysis in fact shows that the selective pressure on belligerence and bravery is substantially driven by the benefits of conquest that accrue on the relatives of the belligerent and/or brave males within their group, showing that kinship ties shape warfare in our model,” Lehmann said. “Evolutionary biologists refers to this as ‘indirect’ transmission of genes because the individual expressing the trait does not reproduce (it’s in fact costly for him), but other individuals from the group who survive may indirectly benefit from the behavior of the possibly dead brave male.”Lehmann added that the genetic relatedness concept stems from the late Bill Hamilton of Oxford University, one of the greatest evolutionary biologists of the 20th century. Prior to Hamilton, the British geneticist J. B. S Haldane also hit upon the idea in a famous anecdote. When asked by a friend at a pub whether he would risk his life to save a drowning man, Haldane scribbled some notes on a napkin and answered, “No, but I would do it for two brothers or eight cousins.” The same idea holds true for the altruistic traits of belligerence and bravery, but Lehmann and Feldman were surprised to find just how large a group could show the kinship connection.“[The greatest significance of this study is] showing that the selective pressure on belligerence and bravery may remain substantial even in groups of large size (approximately 50 males and 50 females),” Lehmann said. “This is interesting because it is usually assumed that individually costly, altruistic traits (of which belligerence and bravery are only particular examples) would only be able to evolve in very small-sized groups, like the nuclear family or something only slightly bigger. The demographics behind warfare may explain the evolution of altruism in larger groups than have usually been assumed in more standard biological scenarios aimed at understanding the evolution of altruism.”Among other interesting results of the model is the finding that bravery is even more highly desired than belligerence, since bravery has advantages when tribes are on both the offensive and defensive sides. On a different note, even though the model describes genetic inheritance, the scientists say that these traits could also be inherited culturally (through nurture rather than nature). Today’s modern wars between large states, as opposed to tribal wars, don’t follow the same model. Rather, one of the most common explanations is that modern wars are fought when the benefits outweigh the costs, in a fairly rational way. But do the results of this study, showing that we are all offspring of conquerors, suggest an underlying primitive explanation for why we fight “rational” modern wars? Though it may be an intriguing idea, Lehmann doesn’t think so.“I don’t think that our study helps in one way or another to understand war between states, but there are many interesting and relevant theories for understanding such wars that have been developed by economists and political scientists,” he said.More information: Lehmann, Laurent and Feldman, Marcus W. “War and the evolution of belligerence and bravery.” Proceedings of The Royal Society B. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0842.Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further Citation: Tribal war drove human evolution of aggression (2008, September 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-09-tribal-war-drove-human-evolution.html Imitation breeds war in new evolutionary theory These reproduction-enhancing resources prompted our ancestors to fight in order to pass down their family genes. With war as a driving force for survival, an interesting pattern occurred, according to a new study. People with certain warrior-like traits were more likely to engage in and win wars, and then passed their warrior genes down to their children, which – on an evolutionary timescale – made their tribe even more warrior-like. In short, humans seem to have become more aggressive over time due to war’s essential benefits.In their study, Stanford University scientists Laurent Lehmann and Marcus Feldman have presented a model showing that aggressive traits in males may have evolved as an adaptation to limited reproductive resources. Because tribal war serves as a method for appropriating territory and women, war may have driven the evolution of these traits. The scientists use the term “belligerence” to refer to a trait that increases the probability that the person’s tribe will attack another tribe. Likewise, “bravery” refers to a trait that increases the probability that the person’s tribe will win a war, whether they have attacked or are being attacked. Lehmann and Feldman demonstrate in their model that belligerence and bravery continue to genetically evolve through the male line. When one tribe conquers another, males in the conquering group mate with females in the conquered group, and pass the warrior traits to their male offspring.“Suppose that for some reason or another each individual in a population is committed through genetic or cultural influence to go to war with probability 0.5,” Lehmann told PhysOrg.com. “Now in one group, an individual appears that is willing to go to war with probability 0.6, which, statistically, will increase his group to go to war. The genes or cultural variants causing individuals to go to war with probability 0.6 may then invade the population (because their bearer and their group members will produce more offspring and send more genetic or cultural variants in the next generation than individuals expressing the probability 0.5 to go war, and on average they will transmit to their offspring the tendency 0.6 to go to war), but this will take several generations, especially if belligerence or bravery is genetically determined. Wars are costly in terms of lives and resources – so why have we fought them throughout human history? In modern times, states may fight wars for a number of complex reasons. But in the past, most tribal wars were fought for the most basic resources: goods, territory, and women.
On January 9, the day preceding the World Hindi Day (January 10), Niyogi Books launched its latest imprint ‘Bahuvachan’, dedicated to the Hindi titles. Through this new imprint, the attempt was to celebrate the state language Hindi – which is not only one among the most spoken languages in India, but also a global language today.Bahuvachan endeavours to further consolidate the publishing house’s ethos of bringing fine publishing within reach. The first 12 books, which have been brought out in this imprint are illustrated titles of international standard, with which its intended to take Hindi books to the global market. The shorlisted books which range across diverse subjects, including biographies, travel, food, and culture include ‘Antarctica: Bharat ki Himani Mahadwip ke liye Yatra’, ‘Apne Bachchon ko Kaise Khilayen? (Aur Iska Luft Lein)’, ‘Avadh ke Zaike: Shahi Dawat se Ghar ki Rasoi Tak ka Safar’, ‘Bhartiya Shastriya Nritya’, ‘Bismillah Khan: Banaras ke Ustad’, ‘Dagar va Dhrupad: Divya Virasat’, to name a few. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfOn launching the imprints, Dr Karan Singh, Indian politician, philanthropist, poet, and a member of the Rajya Sabha, said: “I love all languages. My mother tongue Dogri, my national language Hindi, and my official language English. I would request you all to not disapprove of any language, but rather be supportive of all. A good book is the lifeblood of civilization.” He also expressed his regrets on the gradual disappearance of the reading culture amongst children and youngsters, who are so engrossed in gadgets today that they have lost their learning skills. Bikash De Niyogi, MD, Niyogi Books stated, “With this initiative, we aim to take the language to greater heights.” The publication house started 2018 with launching three new imprints to pigeonhole their diverse subjects and genres of publication in Jnauary itself. And, coming towards August, they launched the first signature bookstore in Kolkata.